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# cross

Cross product

## Description

example

C = cross(A,B) returns the cross product of A and B.

• If A and B are vectors, then they must have a length of 3.

• If A and B are matrices or multidimensional arrays, then they must have the same size. In this case, the cross function treats A and B as collections of three-element vectors. The function calculates the cross product of corresponding vectors along the first array dimension whose size equals 3.

example

C = cross(A,B,dim) evaluates the cross product of arrays A and B along dimension, dim. A and B must have the same size, and both size(A,dim) and size(B,dim) must be 3. The dim input is a positive integer scalar.

## Examples

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### Cross Product of Vectors

Create two 3-D vectors.

```A = [4 -2 1];
B = [1 -1 3];```

Find the cross product of A and B.

`C = cross(A,B)`
```C =

-5   -11    -2```

The result, C, is a vector that is perpendicular to both A and B.

Use dot products to verify that C is perpendicular to A and B.

`dot(C,A)==0 & dot(C,B)==0`
```ans =

1```

The result is logical 1 (true).

### Cross Product of Matrices

Create two matrices containing random integers.

```rng(0)
A = randi(15,3,5)
B = randi(25,3,5)```
```A =

13    14     5    15    15
14    10     9     3     8
2     2    15    15    13

B =

4    20     1    17    10
11    24    22    19    17
23    17    24    19     5
```

Find the cross product of A and B.

`C = cross(A,B)`
```C =

300   122  -114  -228  -181
-291  -198  -105   -30    55
87   136   101   234   175```

The result, C, contains five independent cross products between the columns of A and B. For example, C(:,1) is equal to the cross product of A(:,1) with B(:,1).

### Cross Product of Multidimensional Arrays

Create two 3-by-3-by-3 multidimensional arrays of random integers.

```rng(0)
A = randi(10,3,3,3);
B = randi(25,3,3,3);```

Find the cross product of A and B, treating the rows as vectors.

`C = cross(A,B,2)`
```C(:,:,1) =

-34    12    62
15    72  -109
-49     8     9

C(:,:,2) =

198  -164  -170
45     0   -18
-55   190  -116

C(:,:,3) =

-109   -45   131
1   -74    82
-6   101  -121```

The result is a collection of row vectors. For example, C(1,:,1) is equal to the cross product of A(1,:,1) with B(1,:,1).

Find the cross product of A and B along the third dimension (dim = 3).

`D = cross(A,B,3)`
```D(:,:,1) =

-14   179  -106
-56    -4   -75
2   -37    10

D(:,:,2) =

-37  -162   -37
50  -124   -78
1    63   118

D(:,:,3) =

62  -170    56
46    72   105
-2   -53  -160```

The result is a collection of vectors oriented in the third dimension. For example, C(1,1,:) is equal to the cross product of A(1,1,:) with B(1,1,:).

## Input Arguments

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### A,B — Input arraysnumeric arrays

Input arrays, specified as numeric arrays.

Data Types: single | double
Complex Number Support: Yes

### dim — Dimension to operate alongpositive integer scalar

Dimension to operate along, specified as a positive integer scalar. The size of dimension dim must be 3. If no value is specified, the default is the first array dimension whose size equals 3.

Consider two 2-D input arrays, A and B:

• cross(A,B,1) treats the columns of A and B as vectors and returns the cross products of corresponding columns.

• cross(A,B,2) treats the rows of A and B as vectors and returns the cross products of corresponding rows.

cross returns an error if dim is greater than ndims(A).

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### Cross Product

The cross product between two 3-D vectors produces a new vector that is perpendicular to both.

Consider the two vectors

In terms of a matrix determinant involving the basis vectors , , and , the cross product of A and B is

Geometrically, is perpendicular to both A and B. The magnitude of the cross product, , is equal to the area of the parallelogram formed using A and B as sides. This area is related to the magnitudes of A and B as well as the angle between the vectors by

Thus, if A and B are parallel, then the cross product is zero.